A gravitational-wave standard siren measurement of the Hubble constant

2018-05-02T17:27:43Z (GMT) by P Ajith B Allen G Allen A Allocca PA Altin A Amato A Ananyeva SB Anderson WG Anderson SV Angelova S Antier S Appert K Arai MC Araya JS Areeda N Arnaud KG Arun S Ascenzi G Ashton M Ast SM Aston P Astone DV Atallah P Aufmuth C Aulbert K AultO'Neal C Austin A Avila-Alvarez S Babak P Bacon MKM Bader S Bae PT Baker F Baldaccini G Ballardin SW Ballmer S Banagiri JC Barayoga SE Barclay BC Barish D Barker K Barkett F Barone B Barr L Barsotti M Barsuglia D Barta J Bartlett I Bartos R Bassiri N Basti JC Batch M Bawaj JC Bayley M Bazzan B Becsy C Beer M Bejger I Belahcene AS Bell BK Berger G Bergmann JJ Bero CPL Berry D Bersanetti A Bertolini J Betzwieser S Bhagwat R Bhandare IA Bilenko G Billingsley CR Billman J Birch R Birney O Birnholtz S Biscans S Biscoveanu A Bisht M Bitossi C Biwer A Bizouard JK Blackburn J Blackman CD Blair DG Blair RM Blair S Bloemen O Bock N Bode M Boer G Bogaert A Bohe F Bondu E Bonilla R Bonnand BA Boom R Bork V Boschi S Bose K Bossie Y Bouffanais A Bozzi C Bradaschia PR Brady M Branchesi JE Brau T Briant A Brillet M Brinkmann V Brisson R Brockill JE Broida NF Brooks DA Brown DD Brown S Brunett CC Buchanan A Buikema H Bulik HJ Bulten A Buonanno D Buskulic C Buy RL Byer M Cabero L Cadonati G Cagnoli C Cahillane JC Bustillo TA Callister E Calloni JB Camp M Canepa P Canizares KC Cannon H Cao J Cao CD Capano E Capocasa F Carbognani S Caride MF Carney JC Diaz C Casentini S Caudill M Cavaglia F Cavalier R Cavalieri G Cella CB Cepeda P Cerda-Duran G Cerretani E Cesarini SJ Chamberlin M Chan S Chao P Charlton E Chase E Chassande-Mottin D Chatterjee K Chatziioannou BD Cheeseboro HY Chen X Chen Y Chen H-P Cheng H Chia N Chincarini A Chiummo T Chmiel HS Cho M Cho JH Chow N Christensen Q Chu AJK Chua S Chua AKW Chung S Chung G Ciani R Ciolfi CE Cirelli N Cirone F Clara JA Clark P Clearwater F Cleva C Cocchieri E Coccia P-F Cohadon D Cohen A Colla CG Collette LR Cominsky M Constancio L Conti SJ Cooper P Corban TR Corbitt I Cordero-Carrion KR Corley N Cornish A Corsi S Cortese CA Costa MW Coughlin SB Coughlin J-P Coulon ST Countryman P Couvares PB Covas EE Cowan DM Coward MJ Cowart DC Coyne R Coyne JDE Creighton TD Creighton J Cripe SG Crowder TJ Cullen A Cumming L Cunningham E Cuoco T Dal Canton G Dalya SL Danilishin S D'Antonio K Danzmann A Dasgupta CFDS Costa LEH Datrier V Dattilo I Dave M Davier EJ Davis EJ Daw B Day S De D DeBra J Degallaix M De laurentis S Deleglise W Del Pozzo N Demos T Denker T Dent R De Pietri V Dergachev R De Rosa RT DeRosa C De Rossi R DeSalvo O de Verona J Devenson S Dhurancihar MC Diaz L Di Fiore M Di Giovanni T Di Girolamo A Di Lieto S Di Pace I Di Palma F Di Renzo Z Doctor V Dolique F Donovan KL Dooley S Doravari I Dorrington R Douglas MD Alvarez TP Downes M Drago C Dreissigacker JC Driggers Z Du M Ducrot P Dupej SE Dwyer TB Edo MC Edwards N Effler H-B Eggenstein P Ehrens J Eichholz SS Eikenberry RA Eisenstein RC Essick D Estevez ZB Etienne T Etzel M Evans TM Evans M Factourovich V Fafone H Fair S Fairhurst X Fan S Farinon B Farr WM Farr EJ Fauchon-Jones M Favata M Fays C Fee H Fehrmann J Feicht MM Fejer A Fernandez-Galiana I Ferrante EC Ferreira F Ferrini F Fidecaro D Finstad I Fiori D Fiorucci M Fishbach RP Fisher M Fitz-Axen R Flaminio M Fletcher H Fong JA Font PWF Forsyth SS Forsyth J-D Fournier S Frasca E Frasconi Z Frei A Freise R Frey V Frey EM Fries P Fritschel VV Frolov P Fulda M Fyffe H Gabbard BU Gadre SM Gaebel JR Gair L Gammaitoni MR Ganija SG Gaonkar C Garcia-Quiros F Garufi B Gateley S Gaudio G Gaur V Gayathril N Gehrels G Gemme E Genin A Gennai D George J George L Gergely V Germain S Ghonge A Ghosh S Ghosh JA Giaime KD Giardina A Giazotto K Gill L Glover E Goetz R Goetz S Gomes B Goncharov G Gonzalez JMG Castro A Gopakumar ML Gorodetsky SE Gossan M Gosselin R Gouaty A Grado C Graef M Granata A Grant S Gras C Gray G Greco AC Green EM Gretarsson P Groot H Grote S Grunewald P Gruning GM Guidi X Guo A Gupta MK Gupta KE Gushwa EK Gustafson R Gustafson O Halim BR Hall ED Hall EZ Hamilton G Hammond M Haney MM Hanke J Hanks C Hanna MD Hannam OA Hannuksela J Hanson I Hardwick J Harms GM Harry IW Harry MJ Hart C-J Hester K Haughian J Healy N Heidmann MC Heintze H Heitmann P Hello G Hemming M Hendry IS Heng J Hennig AW Heptonstall M Heurs S Hild T Hinderer D Hoak D Hofman K Holt DE Holz P Hopkins C Horst J Hough EA Houston EJ Howell A Hreibi YM Hu EA Huerta D Huet B Hughey S Husa SH Huttner T Huynh-Dinh N Indik R Inta G Intini HN Isa J-M Isac M Isi BR Iyer K Izumi T Jacqmin K Jani P Jaranowski S Jawahar F Jimenez-Forteza WW Johnson DI Jones R Jones RJG Jonker L Ju J Junker CV Kalaghatgi V Kalogera B Kamai S Kandhasamy G Kang JB Kanner SJ Kapadia S Karki KS Karvinen M Kasprzack M Katolik E Katsavounidis W Katzman S Kaufer K Kawabe E Kefelian D Keitel AJ Kemball R Kennedy C Kent JS Key FY Khalili I Khan S Khan Z Khan EA Khazanov N Kijbunchoo C Kim JC Kim K Kim W Kim WS Kim Y-M Kim SJ Kimbrell EJ King PJ King M Kinley-Hanlon R Kirchhoff JS Kissel L Kleybolte S Klimenko TD Knowles P Koch SM Koehlenbeck S Koley V Kondrashov A Kontos M Korobko WZ Korth I Kowalska DB Kozak C Kraemer V Kringel B Krishnan A Krolak G Kuehn P Kumar R Kumar S Kumar L Kuo A Kutynia S Kwang BD Lackey KH Lai M Landry RN Lang J Lange B Lantz RK Lanza N Lartaux-Vollard PD Lasky M Laxen A Lazzarini C Lazzaro P Leaci S Leavey CH Lee HK Lee HM Lee HW Lee K Lee J Lehmann A Lenon M Leonardi N Leroy N Letendre Y Levin TGF Li SD Linker TB Littenberg J Liu X Liu RKL Lo NN Lockerbie LT London JE Lord M Lorenzini V Loriette M Lormand G Losurdo JD Lough CO Lousto G Lovelace H Lueock D Lumaca AP Lundgren R Lynch Y Ma R Macas S Macfoy B Machenschalk M Maclnnis DM Macleod IM Hernandez F Magana-Sandoval LM Zertuche RM Magee E Majorana I Maksimovic N Man V Mandic V Mangano GL Mansell M Manske M Mantovani F Marchesoni F Marion S Marka Z Marka C Markakis AS Markosyan A Markowitz E Maros A Marquina F Martelli L Martellini IW Martin RM Martin DV Martynov K Mason E Massera A Masserot TJ Massinger M Masso-Reid S Mastrogiovanni A Matas F Matichard L Matone N Mavalvala N Mazumder R McCarthy DE McClelland S McCormick L McCuller SC McGuire G McIntyre J McIver DJ McManus L McNeill T McRae ST McWilliams D Meacher GD Meadors M Mehmet J Meidam E Mejuto-Villa A Melatos G Mendell RA Mercer EL Merilh M Merzougui S Meshkov C Messenger C Messick R Metzdorff PM Meyers H Miao C Michel H Middleton EE Mikhailov L Milano AL Miller BB Miller J Miller M Millhouse MC Milovich-Goff O Minazzoli Y Minenkov J Ming C Mishra S Mitra VR Mitrofanov G Mitselmakher R Mittleman D Moffa N Moggi K Mogushi M Mohan SRP Mohapatra M Montani CJ Moore D Moraru G Moreno SR Morriss B Mours CM Mow-Lowry G Mueller AW Muir A Mukherjee D Mukherjee S Mukherjee N Mukund A Mullavey J Munch EA Muniz M Muratore PG Murray K Napier I Nardecchia L Naticchioni RK Nayak J Neilson G Nelemans TJN Nelson M Nery A Neunzert L Nevin JM Newport G Newton KKY Ng TT Nguyen D Nichols AB Nielsen S Nissanke A Nitz A Noack F Nocera D Nolting C North LK Nuttall J Oberling GD O'Dea GH Ogin JJ Oh SH Oh F Ohme MA Okada M Oliver P Oppermann RJ Oram B O'Reilly R Ormiston LF Ortega R O'Shaughnessy S Ossokine DJ Ottaway H Overmier BJ Owen AE Pace J Page MA Page A Pai SA Pai JR Palamos O Palashov C Palomba A Pal-Singh H Pan H-W Pan B Pang PTH Pang C Pankow F Pannarale BC Pant F Paoletti A Paoli MA Papa A Parida W Parker D Pascucci A Pasqualetti R Passaquieti D Passuello M Patil B Patricelli BL Pearlstone M Pedraza R Pedurand L Pekowsky A Pele S Penn CJ Perez A Perreca LM Perri HP Pfeiffer M Phelps OJ Piccinni M Pichot F Piergiovanni V Pierro G Pillant L Pinard IM Pinto M Pirello M Pitkin M Poe R Poggiani P Popolizio EK Porter A Post J Powell J Prasad JWW Pratt G Pratten V Predoi T Prestegard M Prijatelj M Principe S Privitera GA Prodi LG Prokhorov O Puncken M Punturo P Puppo M Puerrer H Qi V Quetschke EA Quintero R Quitzow-James FJ Raab DS Rabeling H Radkins P Raffai S Raja C Rajan B Rajbhandari M Rakhmanov KE Ramirez A Ramos-Buades P Rapagnani V Raymond M Razzano J Read T Regimbau L Rei S Reid DH Reitze W Ren SD Reyes F Ricci PM Ricker S Rieger K Riles M Rizzo NA Robertson R Robie F Robinet A Rocchi L Rolland JG Rollins VJ Roma JD Romano R Romano CL Romel JH Romie D Rosinska MP Ross S Rowan A Ruediger P Ruggi G Rutins K Ryan S Sachdev I Sadecki L Sadeghian M Sakellariadou L Salconi M Saleem F Salemi A Samajdar L Sammut LM Sampson EJ Sanchez LE Sanchez N Sanchis-Gual V Sandberg JR Sanders B Sassolas BS Sathyaprakash PR Saulson O Sauter RL Savage A Sawadsky P Schale M Scheel J Schauer J Schmidt P Schmidt R Schnabel RMS Schofield A Schoenbeck E Schreiber D Schuette BW Schulte BF Schutz SG Schwalbe J Scott SM Scott E Seidel D Sellers AS Sengupta D Sentenac V Sequino A Sergeev DA Shaddock TJ Shaffer AA Shah MS Shahriar MB Shaner L Shao B Shapiro P Shawhan A Shepard DH Shoemaker DM Shoemaker K Siellez X Siemens M Sieniawska D Sigg AD Silva LP Singer A Singh A Singhal AM Sintes BJJ Slagmolen B Smith JR Smith RJE Smith S Somala EJ Son JN Sonnenberg B Sorazu F Sorrentino T Souradeep AP Spencer AK Srivastava K Staats A Staley D Steer M Steinke J Steinlechner S Steinlechner D Steinmeyer SP Stevenson R Stone DJ Stops KA Strain G Stratta SE Strigin A Strunk R Sturani AL Stuver TZ Summerscales L Sun S Sunil J Suresh PJ Sutton BL Swinkels MJ Szczepanczyk M Tacca SC Tait C Talbot D Talukder DB Tanner M Tapai A Taracchini JD Tasson JA Taylor R Taylor SV Tewari T Theeg F Thies EG Thomas M Thomas P Thomas KA Thorne E Thrane S Tiwari V Tiwari KV Tokmakov K Toland M Tonelli Z Tornasi N Torres-Forne CI Torrie D Toyra F Travasso G Traylor J Trinastic MC Tringali L Trozzon KW Tsang M Tse R Tso L Tsukada D Tsuna D Tuyenbayev K Ueno D Ugolini CS Unnikrishnan AL Urban SA Usman H Vahlbruch G Vajente G Valdese N van Bakel M van Beuzekom JFJ van den Brand C Van den Broeck DC Vander-Hyde L van der Schaaf JV van Heijningen AA van Veggel M Vardaro V Varma S Vass M Vasuth A Vecchio G Vedovato J Veitch PJ Veitch K Venkateswara G Venugopalan D Verkindt F Vetrano A Vicere AD Viets S Vinciguerra DJ Vine J-Y Vinet S Vitale T Vo H Vocca C Vorvick SP Vyatchanin AR Wade LE Wade M Wade R Walet M Walker L Wallace S Walsh G Wang H Wang JZ Wang WH Wang YF Wang RL Ward J Warner M Was J Watchi B Weaver L-W Wei M Weinert AJ Weinstein R Weiss L Wen EK Wessel P Wessels J Westerweck T Westphal K Wette JT Whelan SE Whitcomb BF Whiting C Whittle D Wilken D Williams RD Williams AR Williamson JL Willis B Willke MH Wimmer W Winkler CC Wipfl H Wittel G Woan J Woehler J Wofford KWK Wong J Worden JL Wright DS Wu DM Wysocki S Xiao H Yamamoto CC Yancey L Yang MJ Yap M Yazback H Yu M Yvert A Zadrozny M Zanolin T Zelenova J-P Zendri M Zevin L Zhang M Zhang T Zhang Y-H Zhang C Zhao M Zhou Z Zhou SJ Zhu XJ Zhu AB Zimmerman ME Zucker J Zweizig RJ Foley DA Coulter MR Drout D Kasen CD Kilpatrick BF Madore A Murguia-Berthier Y-C Pan AL Piro JX Prochaska E Ramirez-Ruiz A Rest C Rojas-Bravo BJ Shappee MR Siebert JD Simon N Ulloas J Annis M Soares-Santos D Brout D Scolnic HT Diehl J Frieman E Berger KD Alexander S Allam E Balbinot P Blanchard RE Butler R Chornock ER Cook P Cowpertwaite A Drlica-Wagner F Durret T Eftekhari DA Finley W Fong CL Fryer J Garcia-Bellido MSS Gill RA Gruendl W Hartley K Herner D Huterer R Kessler TS Li H Lin PAA Lopes ACC Lourenco R Margutti J Marriner JL Marshall T Matheson GE Medina BD Metzger RR Munoz J Muir M Nicholl P Nugent A Palmese F Paz-Chinchon E Quataert M Sako M Sauseda DJ Schlegel LF Secco N Smith F Sobreira A Stebbins VA Villar AK Vivas W Wester PKG Williams B Yanny A Zenteno TMC Abbott FB Abdalla K Bechtol A Benoit-Levy E Bertin SL Bridle D Brooks E Buckley-Geer DL Burke AC Rosell MC Kind J Carretero FJ Castander CE Cunha CB D'Andrea LN da Costa C Davis DL DePoy S Desai JP Dietrich J Estrada E Fernandez B Flaugher P Fosalba E Gaztanaga DW Gerdes T Giannantonio DA Goldstein D Gruen G Gutierrez WG Hartley K Honscheid B Jain DJ James T Jeltema MWG Johnson S Kent E Krause R Kron K Kuehn S Kuhlmann N Kuropatkin O Lahav M Lima MAG Maia M March CJ Miller R Miquel E Neilsen B Nord RLC Ogando AN Plazas AK Romer A Roodman ES Rykoff E Sanchez V Scarpine M Schubnell I Sevilla-Noarbe M Smith RC Smith' E Suchyta G Tarle D Thomas RC Thomas MA Troxel DL Tucker V Vikram AR Walker J Weller Y Zhang JB Haislip VV Kouprinov DE Reichart L Tartaglia DJ Sand S Valenti S Yang I Arcavi G Hosseinzadeh DA Howell C McCully D Poznanski S Vasylyev NR Tanvir NJ Levan J Hjorth Z Cano C Copperwheat A de Ugarte-Postigo PA Evans JPU Fynbo C Gonzalez-Fernandez J Greiner M Irwin J Lyman I Mandel R McMahon B Milvang-Jensen P O'Brien JP Osborne DA Perley E Pian E Palazzi E Rol S Rosetti S Rosswog A Rowlinson S Schulze DTH Steeghs CC Thone K Ulaczyk D Watson K Wiersema VM Lipunov E Gorbovskoy VG Kornilov N Tyurina P Balanutsa D Vlasenko I Gorbunov R Podesta H Levato C Saffe DAH Buckley NM Budnev O Gress V Yurkov R Rebolo M Serra-Ricart
On 17 August 2017, the Advanced LIGO1 and Virgo2 detectors observed the gravitational-wave event GW170817—a strong signal from the merger of a binary neutron-star system3. Less than two seconds after the merger, a γ-ray burst (GRB 170817A) was detected within a region of the sky consistent with the LIGO–Virgo-derived location of the gravitational-wave source4, 5, 6. This sky region was subsequently observed by optical astronomy facilities7, resulting in the identification8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 of an optical transient signal within about ten arcseconds of the galaxy NGC 4993. This detection of GW170817 in both gravitational waves and electromagnetic waves represents the first ‘multi-messenger’ astronomical observation. Such observations enable GW170817 to be used as a ‘standard siren’14, 15, 16, 17, 18 (meaning that the absolute distance to the source can be determined directly from the gravitational-wave measurements) to measure the Hubble constant. This quantity represents the local expansion rate of the Universe, sets the overall scale of the Universe and is of fundamental importance to cosmology. Here we report a measurement of the Hubble constant that combines the distance to the source inferred purely from the gravitational-wave signal with the recession velocity inferred from measurements of the redshift using the electromagnetic data. In contrast to previous measurements, ours does not require the use of a cosmic ‘distance ladder’19: the gravitational-wave analysis can be used to estimate the luminosity distance out to cosmological scales directly, without the use of intermediate astronomical distance measurements. We determine the Hubble constant to be about 70 kilometres per second per megaparsec. This value is consistent with existing measurements20, 21, while being completely independent of them. Additional standard siren measurements from future gravitational-wave sources will enable the Hubble constant to be constrained to high precision.