Comorbid depression and risk of cardiac events and cardiac mortality in people with diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis
2020-03-16T15:28:19Z (GMT) by
To examine the association of comorbid occurrence of diabetes and depression with risk of cardiovascular endpoints including cardiovascular mortality, coronary heart disease and stroke. Research design and methods: A systematic review and metaanalysis. We searched PUBMED/MEDLINE, Medscape, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, EMBASE and Scopus databases assessing cardiac events and mortality associated with depression in diabetes up until 1 December 2018. Pooled hazard ratios were calculated using random- effects models. Results: Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. The combined pooled hazard ratios showed a significant association of cardiac events in people with depression and type 2 diabetes, compared to those with type 2 diabetes alone. For cardiovascular mortality the pooled hazard ratio was 1.48 (95% CI: 1.185, 1.845), p = 0.001, for coronary heart disease 1.37 (1.165, 1.605), p < 0.001 and for stroke 1.33 (1.291, 1.369), p < 0.001. Heterogeneity was high in the meta-analysis for stroke events (I-squared = 84.7%) but was lower for coronary heart disease and cardiovascular mortality (15% and 43.4% respectively). Meta-regression analyses showed that depression was not significantly associated with the study level covariates mean age, duration of diabetes, length of follow-up, BMI, sex and ethnicity (p < 0.05 for all models). Only three studies were found that examined the association of depression in type 1 diabetes, there was a high degree of heterogeneity and data synthesis was not conducted for these studies. Conclusions: We have demonstrated a 47.9% increase in cardiovascular mortality, 36.8% increase in coronary heart disease and 32.9% increase in stroke in people with diabetes and comorbid depression. The presence of depression in a person with diabetes should trigger the consideration of evidence-based therapies for cardiovascular disease prevention irrespective of the baseline risk of cardiovascular disease or duration of diabetes.