Dielectric response and space charge in epoxy impregnated paper composite laminates

As the main material of the converter transformer dry-type bushing, the dielectric properties of epoxy/crepe paper at different temperatures and frequencies are related to the electric field and thermal field distribution of the bushing, which directly affects the safe and stable operation of the bushing. Here we report the dielectric response of samples of dry-type bushing insulation measured at a range of temperatures appropriate to operation and down to frequencies below those usually used. A significant loss peak observed below power frequency is interpreted as originating from the charging of internal epoxy resin interfaces by the transport of charge carriers on structured paths in the epoxy-impregnated crepe paper layers. A simulation model is proposed that allows estimation of the space charge and field distribution at any given frequency.