Effect of Vitamin Levels on Biomarkers of Exposure and Oxidative Damage - the EXPAH Study.

DNA adducts are markers of carcinogen exposure and of their biological effect; they have been shown to be related to mutagenesis, and therefore they could be a predictive biomarker of human cancer. The objective of this study was to assess if there is a relationship between vitamins A, C, and E, which are known to play a significant role as free radical scavengers and antioxidant agents, and biomarkers of genotoxicity and oxidative stress. Three hundred and fifty-six subjects from Czech Republic, Slovak Republic and Bulgaria, who completed a questionnaire on dietary information and had a measurement of plasma A, C, E vitamins, DNA adduct levels (benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and bulky (DNA-Tot) DNA adducts) and oxidative damage (cyclic pyrimidopurinone N-1,N2 malondialdehyde-2 deoxyguanosine (M1dG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2_deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG)) were analyzed. A significant inverse correlation was observed between plasma vitamin levels and both benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and bulky DNA adducts. Vitamin A was also significantly inversely correlated with M1dG, a marker of oxidative damage. The associations were stronger in non-smokers than in smokers. Dietary intake of certain antioxidants such as vitamins is associated with reduced levels of markers of DNA damage (B[a]P and DNA-Tot) and oxidation (M1dG and 8-oxodG) measured in peripheral white blood cells. This could contribute to the protective role of such a dietary pattern on cancer risk. The protective effect of dietary vitamins is less evident in smokers.

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