Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-Years for 29 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2017: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study.
2019-10-02T13:44:53Z (GMT) by Global Burden of Disease Cancer Collaboration C Fitzmaurice D Abate N Abbasi H Abbastabar F Abd-Allah O Abdel-Rahman A Abdelalim A Abdoli I Abdollahpour ASM Abdulle ND Abebe HN Abraha LJ Abu-Raddad A Abualhasan IA Adedeji SM Advani M Afarideh M Afshari M Aghaali D Agius S Agrawal A Ahmadi E Ahmadian E Ahmadpour MB Ahmed ME Akbari T Akinyemiju Z Al-Aly AM AlAbdulKader F Alahdab T Alam GM Alamene BTT Alemnew KA Alene C Alinia V Alipour SM Aljunid FA Bakeshei MAH Almadi A Almasi-Hashiani U Alsharif S Alsowaidi N Alvis-Guzman E Amini S Amini YA Amoako Z Anbari NH Anber CL Andrei M Anjomshoa F Ansari A Ansariadi SCY Appiah M Arab-Zozani J Arabloo Z Arefi O Aremu HA Areri A Artaman H Asayesh ET Asfaw AF Ashagre R Assadi B Ataeinia HT Atalay Z Ataro S Atique M Ausloos L Avila-Burgos EFGA Avokpaho A Awasthi N Awoke BP Ayala Quintanilla MA Ayanore HT Ayele E Babaee U Bacha A Badawi M Bagherzadeh E Bagli S Balakrishnan A Balouchi TW Bärnighausen RJ Battista M Behzadifar BB Bekele YB Belay YM Belayneh KKS Berfield A Berhane E Bernabe M Beuran N Bhakta K Bhattacharyya B Biadgo A Bijani MS Bin Sayeed C Birungi C Bisignano H Bitew T Bjørge A Bleyer KA Bogale HA Bojia AM Borzì C Bosetti IR Bou-Orm H Brenner JD Brewer AN Briko NI Briko MT Bustamante-Teixeira ZA Butt G Carreras JJ Carrero F Carvalho C Castro F Castro F Catalá-López E Cerin Y Chaiah WF Chanie VK Chattu P Chaturvedi NS Chauhan M Chehrazi PP-C Chiang TY Chichiabellu OG Chido-Amajuoyi O Chimed-Ochir J-YJ Choi DJ Christopher D-T Chu M-M Constantin VM Costa E Crocetti CS Crowe MP Curado SMA Dahlawi G Damiani AH Darwish A Daryani J das Neves FM Demeke AB Demis BW Demissie GT Demoz E Denova-Gutiérrez A Derakhshani KS Deribe R Desai BB Desalegn M Desta S Dey SD Dharmaratne M Dhimal D Diaz MTT Dinberu S Djalalinia DT Doku TM Drake M Dubey E Dubljanin EE Duken H Ebrahimi A Effiong A Eftekhari I El Sayed MES Zaki SI El-Jaafary Z El-Khatib DA Elemineh H Elkout RG Ellenbogen A Elsharkawy MH Emamian DA Endalew AY Endries B Eshrati I Fadhil V Fallah M Faramarzi MA Farhangi A Farioli F Farzadfar N Fentahun E Fernandes GT Feyissa I Filip F Fischer JL Fisher LM Force M Foroutan M Freitas T Fukumoto ND Futran S Gallus FG Gankpe RT Gayesa TT Gebrehiwot GG Gebremeskel GA Gedefaw BK Gelaw B Geta S Getachew KE Gezae M Ghafourifard A Ghajar A Ghashghaee A Gholamian PS Gill TTG Ginindza A Girmay M Gizaw RS Gomez SV Gopalani G Gorini BNG Goulart A Grada M Ribeiro Guerra ALS Guimaraes PC Gupta R Gupta K Hadkhale A Haj-Mirzaian RR Hamadeh S Hamidi LK Hanfore JM Haro M Hasankhani A Hasanzadeh HY Hassen RJ Hay SI Hay A Henok NJ Henry C Herteliu HD Hidru CL Hoang MK Hole P Hoogar N Horita HD Hosgood M Hosseini M Hosseinzadeh M Hostiuc S Hostiuc M Househ MM Hussen B Ileanu MD Ilic K Innos SSN Irvani KR Iseh SMS Islam F Islami N Jafari Balalami M Jafarinia L Jahangiry MA Jahani N Jahanmehr M Jakovljevic SL James M Javanbakht S Jayaraman SH Jee E Jenabi RP Jha JB Jonas J Jonnagaddala T Joo SB Jungari M Jürisson A Kabir F Kamangar A Karch N Karimi A Karimian A Kasaeian GG Kasahun B Kassa TD Kassa MW Kassaw A Kaul PN Keiyoro AG Kelbore AA Kerbo YS Khader M Khalilarjmandi EA Khan G Khan Y-H Khang K Khatab A Khater M Khayamzadeh M Khazaee-Pool S Khazaei AT Khoja MH Khosravi J Khubchandani N Kianipour D Kim YJ Kim A Kisa S Kisa K Kissimova-Skarbek H Komaki A Koyanagi KJ Krohn BK Bicer N Kugbey V Kumar D Kuupiel C La Vecchia DP Lad EA Lake AM Lakew DK Lal FH Lami Q Lan S Lasrado P Lauriola JV Lazarus J Leigh CT Leshargie Y Liao MA Limenih S Listl AD Lopez PD Lopukhov R Lunevicius M Madadin S Magdeldin HMA El Razek A Majeed A Maleki R Malekzadeh A Manafi N Manafi WA Manamo M Mansourian MA Mansournia LG Mantovani S Maroufizadeh SMS Martini TP Mashamba-Thompson BB Massenburg MT Maswabi MR Mathur C McAlinden M McKee HAA Meheretu R Mehrotra V Mehta T Meier YA Melaku GG Meles HG Meles A Melese M Melku PTN Memiah W Mendoza RG Menezes S Merat TJ Meretoja T Mestrovic B Miazgowski T Miazgowski KMM Mihretie TR Miller EJ Mills SM Mir H Mirzaei HR Mirzaei R Mishra B Moazen DK Mohammad KA Mohammad Y Mohammad AM Darwesh A Mohammadbeigi H Mohammadi M Mohammadi M Mohammadian A Mohammadian-Hafshejani M Mohammadoo-Khorasani R Mohammadpourhodki AS Mohammed JA Mohammed S Mohammed F Mohebi AH Mokdad L Monasta Y Moodley M Moosazadeh M Moossavi G Moradi M Moradi-Joo M Moradi-Lakeh F Moradpour L Morawska J Morgado-da-Costa N Morisaki SD Morrison A Mosapour SM Mousavi AA Muche OSS Muhammed J Musa AR Nabhan M Naderi AJ Nagarajan G Nagel A Nahvijou G Naik F Najafi L Naldi HS Nam N Nasiri J Nazari I Negoi S Neupane PA Newcomb HA Nggada JW Ngunjiri CT Nguyen L Nikniaz DNA Ningrum YL Nirayo MR Nixon CA Nnaji M Nojomi S Nosratnejad MN Shiadeh MS Obsa R Ofori-Asenso FA Ogbo I-H Oh AT Olagunju TO Olagunju MM Oluwasanu AE Omonisi OE Onwujekwe AM Oommen E Oren DDV Ortega-Altamirano E Ota SS Otstavnov MO Owolabi M P A JR Padubidri S Pakhale AH Pakpour A Pana E-K Park H Parsian T Pashaei S Patel ST Patil A Pennini DM Pereira C Piccinelli JD Pillay M Pirestani F Pishgar MJ Postma H Pourjafar F Pourmalek A Pourshams S Prakash N Prasad M Qorbani M Rabiee N Rabiee A Radfar A Rafiei F Rahim M Rahimi MA Rahman F Rajati SM Rana S Raoofi GK Rath DL Rawaf S Rawaf RC Reiner AMN Renzaho N Rezaei A Rezapour AI Ribeiro D Ribeiro L Ronfani EM Roro G Roshandel A Rostami RS Saad P Sabbagh S Sabour B Saddik S Safiri A Sahebkar MR Salahshoor F Salehi H Salem MR Salem H Salimzadeh JA Salomon AM Samy J Sanabria MM Santric Milicevic B Sartorius A Sarveazad B Sathian M Satpathy M Savic M Sawhney M Sayyah IJC Schneider B Schöttker M Sekerija SG Sepanlou M Sepehrimanesh S Seyedmousavi F Shaahmadi H Shabaninejad M Shahbaz MA Shaikh A Shamshirian M Shamsizadeh H Sharafi Z Sharafi M Sharif A Sharifi H Sharifi R Sharma A Sheikh R Shirkoohi SR Shukla S Si S Siabani DAS Silva DGA Silveira A Singh JA Singh S Sisay F Sitas E Sobngwi M Soofi JB Soriano V Stathopoulou MB Sufiyan R Tabarés-Seisdedos T Tabuchi K Takahashi OR Tamtaji MR Tarawneh SG Tassew P Taymoori A Tehrani-Banihashemi M-H Temsah O Temsah BE Tesfay FH Tesfay MY Teshale GA Tessema S Thapa KG Tlaye R Topor-Madry MR Tovani-Palone E Traini BX Tran KB Tran AG Tsadik I Ullah OA Uthman M Vacante M Vaezi P Varona Pérez Y Veisani S Vidale FS Violante V Vlassov SE Vollset T Vos K Vosoughi GT Vu IS Vujcic H Wabinga TM Wachamo FS Wagnew Y Waheed F Weldegebreal GT Weldesamuel T Wijeratne DZ Wondafrash TE Wonde AB Wondmieneh HM Workie R Yadav A Yadegar A Yadollahpour M Yaseri V Yazdi-Feyzabadi A Yeshaneh MA Yimam EM Yimer E Yisma N Yonemoto MZ Younis B Yousefi M Yousefifard C Yu E Zabeh V Zadnik TZ Moghadam Z Zaidi M Zamani H Zandian A Zangeneh L Zaki K Zendehdel ZM Zenebe TA Zewale A Ziapour S Zodpey CJL Murray
Importance: Cancer and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are now widely recognized as a threat to global development. The latest United Nations high-level meeting on NCDs reaffirmed this observation and also highlighted the slow progress in meeting the 2011 Political Declaration on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases and the third Sustainable Development Goal. Lack of situational analyses, priority setting, and budgeting have been identified as major obstacles in achieving these goals. All of these have in common that they require information on the local cancer epidemiology. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study is uniquely poised to provide these crucial data. Objective: To describe cancer burden for 29 cancer groups in 195 countries from 1990 through 2017 to provide data needed for cancer control planning. Evidence Review: We used the GBD study estimation methods to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Results are presented at the national level as well as by Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income, educational attainment, and total fertility rate. We also analyzed the influence of the epidemiological vs the demographic transition on cancer incidence. Findings: In 2017, there were 24.5 million incident cancer cases worldwide (16.8 million without nonmelanoma skin cancer [NMSC]) and 9.6 million cancer deaths. The majority of cancer DALYs came from years of life lost (97%), and only 3% came from years lived with disability. The odds of developing cancer were the lowest in the low SDI quintile (1 in 7) and the highest in the high SDI quintile (1 in 2) for both sexes. In 2017, the most common incident cancers in men were NMSC (4.3 million incident cases); tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer (1.5 million incident cases); and prostate cancer (1.3 million incident cases). The most common causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for men were TBL cancer (1.3 million deaths and 28.4 million DALYs), liver cancer (572 000 deaths and 15.2 million DALYs), and stomach cancer (542 000 deaths and 12.2 million DALYs). For women in 2017, the most common incident cancers were NMSC (3.3 million incident cases), breast cancer (1.9 million incident cases), and colorectal cancer (819 000 incident cases). The leading causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for women were breast cancer (601 000 deaths and 17.4 million DALYs), TBL cancer (596 000 deaths and 12.6 million DALYs), and colorectal cancer (414 000 deaths and 8.3 million DALYs). Conclusions and Relevance: The national epidemiological profiles of cancer burden in the GBD study show large heterogeneities, which are a reflection of different exposures to risk factors, economic settings, lifestyles, and access to care and screening. The GBD study can be used by policy makers and other stakeholders to develop and improve national and local cancer control in order to achieve the global targets and improve equity in cancer care.