Heart failure etiologies and clinical factors precipitating for worsening heart failure: Findings from BIOSTAT-CHF

Background: Knowledge on the association between heart failure (HF) etiologies, precipitant causes and clinical outcomes may help in ascertaining patient's risk and in selecting tailored therapeutic strategies. Methods: The prognostic value of both HF etiologies and precipitants for worsening HF were analyzed using the index cohort of BIOSTAT-CHF. The studied HF etiologies were: a) ischemic HF; b) dilated cardiomyopathy; c) hypertensive HF; d) valvular HF; and e) other/unknown. The precipitating factors for worsening HF were: a) atrial fibrillation; b) non-adherence; c) renal failure; d) acute coronary syndrome; e) hypertension; and f) Infection. The primary outcome was the composite of all-cause death or HF hospitalization. Results: Among 2465 patients included in the study, 45% (N = =1102) had ischemic HF, 23% (N = =563) dilated cardiomyopathy, 15% (N = =379) other/unknown, 10% (N = =237) hypertensive and 7% (N = =184) valvular HF. Patients with ischemic HF had the worst prognosis, whereas patients with dilated cardiomyopathy had the best prognosis. From the precipitating factors for worsening HF, renal failure was the one independently associated with worse prognosis (adjusted HR (95%CI) = =1.48 (1.04–2.09), p < 0.001). We found no interaction between HF etiologies and precipitating factors for worsening HF with regard to the study outcomes (p interaction > 0.10 for all). Treatment up-titration benefited patients regardless of their underlying etiology or precipitating cause (p interaction > 0.10 for all). Conclusions: In BIOSTAT-CHF, patients with HF of an ischemic etiology, and those with worsening HF precipitated by renal failure (irrespective of the underlying HF etiology), had the highest rates of death and HF hospitalization, but still benefited equally from treatment up-titration.

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