Multiple facets of self-esteem: within attribution style, stress coping and forgiveness
2010-03-17T09:50:44Z (GMT) by
Objectives. Empirically investigate the role of self-esteem occurring through an individual’s social perceptions by examining the relationships between multiple facets self-esteem and three optimal function domains (attribution style, stress coping and forgiveness), which are specifically related to positive psychology. Methods. The relationship between uni-dimensional explicit self-esteem (Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale), two-dimensional explicit self-esteem (Self-Liking/Self-Competence Scale) and implicit self-esteem (Implicit Association Test for Self-Esteem) are examined among 591 participants (male = 263, female= 328). The relationships between multiple self-esteem with attribution styles are examined among 206 participants (male= 92, female=114). Both the relationship between multiple self-esteem and coping styles or forgiveness style are examined among 198 participants (88 male, 110 female). Results. Implicit and explicit self-esteem are two different, independent evaluative systems. Both Rosenberg’s global self-esteem and IAT implicit self-esteem are significant predictors of internality and globality dimensions for attribution style, with Rosenberg’s self-esteem having a bigger predictive power than IAT implicit selfesteem. Furthermore, implicit self-esteem is also found to account for the unique variance in stability dimension attribution style. There is no correlation between implicit self-esteem and coping styles, or between Rosenberg’s traditional unidimension self-esteem and coping styles. Nevertheless, the findings show that the two-dimensional explicit self-esteem measurement (SLCS-R) is significantly and positively related to active and effective coping styles (approach coping, emotional regulation coping and reappraisal coping). Self-competence significantly has a stronger predictive power on the approach coping style than self-liking, which is found to account for the unique variance in the reappraisal coping style. Implicit selfesteem plays a critical role in forgiveness, showing that people with high implicit selfesteem find it more difficult to forgive themselves and forgive others, whilst people with high implicit self-esteem seem to be more likely to forgive the situation. Conclusions. These findings extend earlier research by identifying the relationship between explicit and implicit self-esteem, and suggesting that there are different characteristics in an individual’s different self-esteem dimensions that can influence the process of positive outcomes when confronted with in attribution style, stress coping and forgiveness.