Phylogenetic classification of the world's tropical forests.

2019-08-01T11:46:54Z (GMT) by JWF Slik J Franklin V Arroyo-Rodríguez R Field S Aguilar N Aguirre J Ahumada S-I Aiba LF Alves A K A Avella F Mora GA Aymard C S Báez P Balvanera ML Bastian J-F Bastin PJ Bellingham E van den Berg P da Conceição Bispo P Boeckx K Boehning-Gaese F Bongers B Boyle F Brambach FQ Brearley S Brown S-L Chai RL Chazdon S Chen P Chhang G Chuyong C Ewango IM Coronado J Cristóbal-Azkarate H Culmsee K Damas HS Dattaraja P Davidar SJ DeWalt H Din DR Drake A Duque G Durigan K Eichhorn ES Eler T Enoki A Ensslin AB Fandohan N Farwig KJ Feeley M Fischer O Forshed QS Garcia SC Garkoti TW Gillespie J-F Gillet C Gonmadje I Granzow-de la Cerda DM Griffith J Grogan KR Hakeem DJ Harris RD Harrison A Hector A Hemp J Homeier MS Hussain G Ibarra-Manríquez IF Hanum N Imai PA Jansen CA Joly S Joseph K Kartawinata E Kearsley DL Kelly M Kessler TJ Killeen RM Kooyman Y Laumonier SG Laurance WF Laurance MJ Lawes SG Letcher J Lindsell J Lovett J Lozada X Lu AM Lykke KB Mahmud NPD Mahayani A Mansor AR Marshall EH Martin D Calderado Leal Matos JA Meave FPL Melo ZHA Mendoza F Metali VP Medjibe JP Metzger T Metzker D Mohandass MA Munguía-Rosas R Muñoz E Nurtjahy EL de Oliveira Onrizal P Parolin M Parren N Parthasarathy E Paudel R Perez EA Pérez-García U Pommer L Poorter L Qie MTF Piedade JRR Pinto AD Poulsen JR Poulsen JS Powers RC Prasad J-P Puyravaud O Rangel J Reitsma DSB Rocha S Rolim F Rovero A Rozak K Ruokolainen E Rutishauser G Rutten MN Mohd Said FZ Saiter P Saner B Santos JR Dos Santos SK Sarker CB Schmitt J Schoengart M Schulze D Sheil P Sist AF Souza WR Spironello T Sposito R Steinmetz T Stevart MS Suganuma R Sukri A Sultana R Sukumar T Sunderland Supriyadi HS Suresh E Suzuki M Tabarelli J Tang EVJ Tanner N Targhetta I Theilade D Thomas J Timberlake M de Morisson Valeriano J van Valkenburg T Van Do H Van Sam JH Vandermeer H Verbeeck OR Vetaas V Adekunle SA Vieira CO Webb EL Webb T Whitfeld S Wich J Williams S Wiser F Wittmann X Yang CY Adou Yao SL Yap RA Zahawi R Zakaria R Zang
Knowledge about the biogeographic affinities of the world's tropical forests helps to better understand regional differences in forest structure, diversity, composition, and dynamics. Such understanding will enable anticipation of region-specific responses to global environmental change. Modern phylogenies, in combination with broad coverage of species inventory data, now allow for global biogeographic analyses that take species evolutionary distance into account. Here we present a classification of the world's tropical forests based on their phylogenetic similarity. We identify five principal floristic regions and their floristic relationships: (i) Indo-Pacific, (ii) Subtropical, (iii) African, (iv) American, and (v) Dry forests. Our results do not support the traditional neo- versus paleotropical forest division but instead separate the combined American and African forests from their Indo-Pacific counterparts. We also find indications for the existence of a global dry forest region, with representatives in America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. Additionally, a northern-hemisphere Subtropical forest region was identified with representatives in Asia and America, providing support for a link between Asian and American northern-hemisphere forests.