Prevalence of Co-Morbidities by Ethnicity in a UK Primary Care CKD Cohort

Background Cardiovascular (CV) and endstage renal disease events in CKD are more common in non-white ethnicities compared to white ethnicities. The prevalence of co-morbidities in CKD in Black and South Asian ethnicities outside of North America is poorly studies but may account for these higher renal and CV event rates. Methods We analysed cross-sectional data from the PSP-CKD study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01688141). Individuals were analysed if they had a baseline EPI eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2 and an ethnicity code. The groups’ baseline characteristics between ethnicities were compared using t-tests and Chi2 . Results 18,058 (78.1%) individuals out of 23,129 had ethnicity recorded. Of these, 17,264 (95.6%) were White, 263 (1.5%) Black and 243 (1.4%) were South Asian. Individuals of Black and South Asian ethnicities were more likely to be male and younger. Mean EPI eGFRs were similar across ethnicities but South Asians had higher mean ACR in both those with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). In Black individuals a diagnosis of hypertension (HTN) was less common but both systolic and diastolic blood pressures had higher mean values. DM was more prevalent in South Asians and HbA1c was higher too. Both Black and South Asian groups had lower rates of CV disease. Conclusion In South Asians with CKD, DM was present in more than 40% and glycaemic control was worse. A HTN diagnosis was less common in Black individuals but blood pressure was more poorly controlled. Both groups had lower rates of previous CV events. Targeted management of these co-morbidities in South Asian and Black populations with CKD may be warranted.

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