Victim experiences of Islamophobic hate crime: a qualitative meta-analysis of ten studies from the United Kingdom
Since entering the public and political spaces little more than two decades ago, Islamophobia as a term and phenomenon has attracted social, political and cultural criticism and contestation(********, 2010,2020).To a lesser extent, the same has been true of the scholarly spaces also (Shryock, 2010; Klug, 2012). One reason for this continues to be the relative newness of the academic study of the phenomenon. Building on community and third sector conceived notions that first emerged in the last decade of the twentieth century (Commission for British Muslims & Islamophobia, 1997; ********& ********, 2002; ********, 2010), the earliest academic studies are merely a decade old (********, 2010; Sheehi, 2011). Accordingly, the existing scholarly canon can be understood to be at best embryonic. However, there has been a noted critical turn in the scholarly study of Islamophobia in recent years (Klug,2012;Moosavi, 2014) with a new criticality beginning to emerge in the works of Lean, Esposito and Shaheen(2012), Taras (2012), Carr (2016),Massoumi, Mills andMiller (2017) and Jackson (2017) among others.