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Firebrand Waves of Digital Activism 1994-2014: The Rise and Spread of Hacktivism and Cyberconflict

posted on 07.05.2015, 10:30 by Athina Karatzogianni
This book introduces four waves of upsurge in digital activism and cyberconflict. The rise of digital activism started in 1994, was transformed by the events of 9/11, culminated in 2011 with the Arab Spring uprisings, and entered a transformative phase of control, mainstreaming and cooptation since 2013 with the Snowden revelations. Digital activism is defined here as political participation, activities and protests organized in digital networks beyond representational politics. It refers to political conduct aiming for reform or revolution by non-state actors and new sociopolitical formations such as social movements, protest organizations, and individuals and groups from the civil society. The latter is defined as social actors outside government and corporate influence. Cyberconflict is defined as conflict in computer mediated environments and it involves an analysis of the interactions between actors engaged in digital activism to raise awareness for a specific cause, struggles against government and corporate actors, as well as conflict between governments, states and corporations. The rationale for these phases is solely based on political effects, rather than technological or developmental determinants.



Karatzogianni, A, Firebrand Waves of Digital Activism 1994-2014: The Rise and Spread of Hacktivism and Cyberconflict, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015

Author affiliation

/Organisation/COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE/Department of Media and Communication


AM (Accepted Manuscript)

Published in



Palgrave Macmillan



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The record file is under permanent embargo by the publisher. The full text may be found in the publisher links above. The author has chosen to make Chapter 3 of this publication Open Access, following a mandatory 36-month embargo period. This can be found at



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