Eddington-limited Accretion in z similar to 2 WISE-selected Hot, Dust-obscured Galaxies

Hot, dust-obscured galaxies, or "Hot DOGs," are a rare, dusty, hyperluminous galaxy population discovered by the WISE mission. Predominantly at redshifts 2–3, they include the most luminous known galaxies in the universe. Their high luminosities likely come from accretion onto highly obscured supermassive black holes (SMBHs). We have conducted a pilot survey to measure the SMBH masses of five $z\sim 2$ Hot DOGs via broad Hα emission lines, using Keck/MOSFIRE and Gemini/FLAMINGOS-2. We detect broad Hα emission in all five Hot DOGs. We find substantial corresponding SMBH masses for these Hot DOGs ($\sim {10}^{9}\,{M}_{\odot }$), and their derived Eddington ratios are close to unity. These $z\sim 2$ Hot DOGs are the most luminous active galactic nuclei for their BH masses, suggesting that they are accreting at the maximum rates for their BHs. A similar property is found for known $z\sim 6$ quasars. Our results are consistent with scenarios in which Hot DOGs represent a transitional, high-accretion phase between obscured and unobscured quasars. Hot DOGs may mark a special evolutionary stage before the red quasar and optical quasar phases, and they may be present at other cosmic epochs.