High-resolution UV/Optical/IR Imaging of Jupiter in 2016-2019

Imaging observations of Jupiter with high spatial resolution were acquired beginning in 2016, with a cadence of 53 days to coincide with atmospheric observations of the Juno spacecraft during each perijove pass. The Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) collected Jupiter images from 236 to 925 nm in 14 filters. The Near-Infrared Imager (NIRI) at Gemini North imaged Jovian thermal emission using a lucky-imaging approach (co-adding the sharpest frames taken from a sequence of short exposures), using the M' filter at 4.7 μm. We discuss the data acquisition and processing and an archive collection that contains the processed WFC3 and NIRI data (doi:10.17909/T94T1H). Zonal winds remain steady over time at most latitudes, but significant evolution of the wind profile near 24°N in 2016 and near 15°S in 2017 was linked with convective superstorm eruptions. Persistent mesoscale waves were seen throughout the 2016–2019 period. We link groups of lightning flashes observed by the Juno team with water clouds in a large convective plume near 15°S and in cyclones near 35°N–55°N. Thermal infrared maps at the 10.8 micron wavelength obtained at the Very Large Telescope show consistent high brightness temperature anomalies, despite a diversity of aerosol properties seen in the HST data. Both WFC3 and NIRI imaging reveal depleted aerosols consistent with downwelling around the periphery of the 15°S storm, which was also observed by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. NIRI imaging of the Great Red Spot shows that locally reduced cloud opacity is responsible for dark features within the vortex. The HST data maps multiple concentric polar hoods of high-latitude hazes.