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A gravitational-wave standard siren measurement of the Hubble constant

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posted on 02.05.2018, 17:27 by P Ajith, B Allen, G Allen, A Allocca, PA Altin, A Amato, A Ananyeva, SB Anderson, WG Anderson, SV Angelova, S Antier, S Appert, K Arai, MC Araya, JS Areeda, N Arnaud, KG Arun, S Ascenzi, G Ashton, M Ast, SM Aston, P Astone, DV Atallah, P Aufmuth, C Aulbert, K AultO'Neal, C Austin, A Avila-Alvarez, S Babak, P Bacon, MKM Bader, S Bae, PT Baker, F Baldaccini, G Ballardin, SW Ballmer, S Banagiri, JC Barayoga, SE Barclay, BC Barish, D Barker, K Barkett, F Barone, B Barr, L Barsotti, M Barsuglia, D Barta, J Bartlett, I Bartos, R Bassiri, N Basti, JC Batch, M Bawaj, JC Bayley, M Bazzan, B Becsy, C Beer, M Bejger, I Belahcene, AS Bell, BK Berger, G Bergmann, JJ Bero, CPL Berry, D Bersanetti, A Bertolini, J Betzwieser, S Bhagwat, R Bhandare, IA Bilenko, G Billingsley, CR Billman, J Birch, R Birney, O Birnholtz, S Biscans, S Biscoveanu, A Bisht, M Bitossi, C Biwer, A Bizouard, JK Blackburn, J Blackman, CD Blair, DG Blair, RM Blair, S Bloemen, O Bock, N Bode, M Boer, G Bogaert, A Bohe, F Bondu, E Bonilla, R Bonnand, BA Boom, R Bork, V Boschi, S Bose, K Bossie, Y Bouffanais, A Bozzi, C Bradaschia, PR Brady, M Branchesi, JE Brau, T Briant, A Brillet, M Brinkmann, V Brisson, R Brockill, JE Broida, NF Brooks, DA Brown, DD Brown, S Brunett, CC Buchanan, A Buikema, H Bulik, HJ Bulten, A Buonanno, D Buskulic, C Buy, RL Byer, M Cabero, L Cadonati, G Cagnoli, C Cahillane, JC Bustillo, TA Callister, E Calloni, JB Camp, M Canepa, P Canizares, KC Cannon, H Cao, J Cao, CD Capano, E Capocasa, F Carbognani, S Caride, MF Carney, JC Diaz, C Casentini, S Caudill, M Cavaglia, F Cavalier, R Cavalieri, G Cella, CB Cepeda, P Cerda-Duran, G Cerretani, E Cesarini, SJ Chamberlin, M Chan, S Chao, P Charlton, E Chase, E Chassande-Mottin, D Chatterjee, K Chatziioannou, BD Cheeseboro, HY Chen, X Chen, Y Chen, H-P Cheng, H Chia, N Chincarini, A Chiummo, T Chmiel, HS Cho, M Cho, JH Chow, N Christensen, Q Chu, AJK Chua, S Chua, AKW Chung, S Chung, G Ciani, R Ciolfi, CE Cirelli, N Cirone, F Clara, JA Clark, P Clearwater, F Cleva, C Cocchieri, E Coccia, P-F Cohadon, D Cohen, A Colla, CG Collette, LR Cominsky, M Constancio, L Conti, SJ Cooper, P Corban, TR Corbitt, I Cordero-Carrion, KR Corley, N Cornish, A Corsi, S Cortese, CA Costa, MW Coughlin, SB Coughlin, J-P Coulon, ST Countryman, P Couvares, PB Covas, EE Cowan, DM Coward, MJ Cowart, DC Coyne, R Coyne, JDE Creighton, TD Creighton, J Cripe, SG Crowder, TJ Cullen, A Cumming, L Cunningham, E Cuoco, T Dal Canton, G Dalya, SL Danilishin, S D'Antonio, K Danzmann, A Dasgupta, CFDS Costa, LEH Datrier, V Dattilo, I Dave, M Davier, EJ Davis, EJ Daw, B Day, S De, D DeBra, J Degallaix, M De laurentis, S Deleglise, W Del Pozzo, N Demos, T Denker, T Dent, R De Pietri, V Dergachev, R De Rosa, RT DeRosa, C De Rossi, R DeSalvo, O de Verona, J Devenson, S Dhurancihar, MC Diaz, L Di Fiore, M Di Giovanni, T Di Girolamo, A Di Lieto, S Di Pace, I Di Palma, F Di Renzo, Z Doctor, V Dolique, F Donovan, KL Dooley, S Doravari, I Dorrington, R Douglas, MD Alvarez, TP Downes, M Drago, C Dreissigacker, JC Driggers, Z Du, M Ducrot, P Dupej, SE Dwyer, TB Edo, MC Edwards, N Effler, H-B Eggenstein, P Ehrens, J Eichholz, SS Eikenberry, RA Eisenstein, RC Essick, D Estevez, ZB Etienne, T Etzel, M Evans, TM Evans, M Factourovich, V Fafone, H Fair, S Fairhurst, X Fan, S Farinon, B Farr, WM Farr, EJ Fauchon-Jones, M Favata, M Fays, C Fee, H Fehrmann, J Feicht, MM Fejer, A Fernandez-Galiana, I Ferrante, EC Ferreira, F Ferrini, F Fidecaro, D Finstad, I Fiori, D Fiorucci, M Fishbach, RP Fisher, M Fitz-Axen, R Flaminio, M Fletcher, H Fong, JA Font, PWF Forsyth, SS Forsyth, J-D Fournier, S Frasca, E Frasconi, Z Frei, A Freise, R Frey, V Frey, EM Fries, P Fritschel, VV Frolov, P Fulda, M Fyffe, H Gabbard, BU Gadre, SM Gaebel, JR Gair, L Gammaitoni, MR Ganija, SG Gaonkar, C Garcia-Quiros, F Garufi, B Gateley, S Gaudio, G Gaur, V Gayathril, N Gehrels, G Gemme, E Genin, A Gennai, D George, J George, L Gergely, V Germain, S Ghonge, A Ghosh, S Ghosh, JA Giaime, KD Giardina, A Giazotto, K Gill, L Glover, E Goetz, R Goetz, S Gomes, B Goncharov, G Gonzalez, JMG Castro, A Gopakumar, ML Gorodetsky, SE Gossan, M Gosselin, R Gouaty, A Grado, C Graef, M Granata, A Grant, S Gras, C Gray, G Greco, AC Green, EM Gretarsson, P Groot, H Grote, S Grunewald, P Gruning, GM Guidi, X Guo, A Gupta, MK Gupta, KE Gushwa, EK Gustafson, R Gustafson, O Halim, BR Hall, ED Hall, EZ Hamilton, G Hammond, M Haney, MM Hanke, J Hanks, C Hanna, MD Hannam, OA Hannuksela, J Hanson, I Hardwick, J Harms, GM Harry, IW Harry, MJ Hart, C-J Hester, K Haughian, J Healy, N Heidmann, MC Heintze, H Heitmann, P Hello, G Hemming, M Hendry, IS Heng, J Hennig, AW Heptonstall, M Heurs, S Hild, T Hinderer, D Hoak, D Hofman, K Holt, DE Holz, P Hopkins, C Horst, J Hough, EA Houston, EJ Howell, A Hreibi, YM Hu, EA Huerta, D Huet, B Hughey, S Husa, SH Huttner, T Huynh-Dinh, N Indik, R Inta, G Intini, HN Isa, J-M Isac, M Isi, BR Iyer, K Izumi, T Jacqmin, K Jani, P Jaranowski, S Jawahar, F Jimenez-Forteza, WW Johnson, DI Jones, R Jones, RJG Jonker, L Ju, J Junker, CV Kalaghatgi, V Kalogera, B Kamai, S Kandhasamy, G Kang, JB Kanner, SJ Kapadia, S Karki, KS Karvinen, M Kasprzack, M Katolik, E Katsavounidis, W Katzman, S Kaufer, K Kawabe, E Kefelian, D Keitel, AJ Kemball, R Kennedy, C Kent, JS Key, FY Khalili, I Khan, S Khan, Z Khan, EA Khazanov, N Kijbunchoo, C Kim, JC Kim, K Kim, W Kim, WS Kim, Y-M Kim, SJ Kimbrell
On 17 August 2017, the Advanced LIGO1 and Virgo2 detectors observed the gravitational-wave event GW170817—a strong signal from the merger of a binary neutron-star system3. Less than two seconds after the merger, a γ-ray burst (GRB 170817A) was detected within a region of the sky consistent with the LIGO–Virgo-derived location of the gravitational-wave source4, 5, 6. This sky region was subsequently observed by optical astronomy facilities7, resulting in the identification8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 of an optical transient signal within about ten arcseconds of the galaxy NGC 4993. This detection of GW170817 in both gravitational waves and electromagnetic waves represents the first ‘multi-messenger’ astronomical observation. Such observations enable GW170817 to be used as a ‘standard siren’14, 15, 16, 17, 18 (meaning that the absolute distance to the source can be determined directly from the gravitational-wave measurements) to measure the Hubble constant. This quantity represents the local expansion rate of the Universe, sets the overall scale of the Universe and is of fundamental importance to cosmology. Here we report a measurement of the Hubble constant that combines the distance to the source inferred purely from the gravitational-wave signal with the recession velocity inferred from measurements of the redshift using the electromagnetic data. In contrast to previous measurements, ours does not require the use of a cosmic ‘distance ladder’19: the gravitational-wave analysis can be used to estimate the luminosity distance out to cosmological scales directly, without the use of intermediate astronomical distance measurements. We determine the Hubble constant to be about 70 kilometres per second per megaparsec. This value is consistent with existing measurements20, 21, while being completely independent of them. Additional standard siren measurements from future gravitational-wave sources will enable the Hubble constant to be constrained to high precision.

Funding

We acknowledge the support of the United States National Science Foundation (NSF) for the construction and operation of the LIGO Laboratory and Advanced LIGO as well as the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) of the United Kingdom, the Max-Planck-Society (MPS), and the State of Niedersachsen/Germany for support of the construction of Advanced LIGO and construction and operation of the GEO600 detector. Additional support for Advanced LIGO was provided by the Australian Research Council. We acknowledge the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter supported by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research for the construction and operation of the Virgo detector and the creation and support of the EGO consortium. We acknowledge research support from these agencies as well as by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India, the Department of Science and Technology, India, the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), India, the Ministry of Human Resource Development, India, the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Investigación, the Vicepresidència i Conselleria d’Innovació, Recerca i Turisme and the Conselleria d’Educació i Universitat del Govern de les Illes Balears, the Conselleria d’Educació, Investigació, Cultura i Esport de la Generalitat Valenciana, the National Science Centre of Poland, the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, the Russian Science Foundation, the European Commission, the European Regional Development Funds (ERDF), the Royal Society, the Scottish Funding Council, the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA), the Lyon Institute of Origins (LIO), the National Research, Development and Innovation Office Hungary (NKFI), the National Research Foundation of Korea, Industry Canada and the Provinc

History

Citation

Nature, 2017, 551 (7678), pp. 85-88

Author affiliation

/Organisation/COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING/Department of Physics and Astronomy

Version

AM (Accepted Manuscript)

Published in

Nature

Publisher

Nature Publishing Group

issn

0028-0836

eissn

1476-4687

Acceptance date

05/10/2017

Copyright date

2017

Available date

02/05/2018

Publisher version

https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v551/n7678/full/nature24471.html

Language

en