Anterior Chamber Measurements in Healthy Children: A Cross-Sectional Study Using Optical Coherence Tomography
journal contributionposted on 17.11.2021, 09:17 by Budor SA Edawaji, Irene Gottlob, Frank A Proudlock
Purpose: To establish anterior chamber measurements in children and investigate the influence of demographic factors on anterior chamber development. Methods: Handheld optical coherence tomography was used to scan the anterior chamber of participants’ eyes, without sedation. Image J was used to generate quantitative anterior chamber measurements, including central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber width, trabecular meshwork length (TML), Schwalbe’s line–angle opening distance (SL-AOD), and trabecular iris surface area (SL-TISA). The average anterior chamber measurements per age group, with 95% prediction intervals, were estimated using fractional polynomial modeling. Mixed regression models were used to evaluate the influence of age, gender, eye, angle, and refractive error variation on anterior chamber measurements. Results: Scans from 223 healthy children (2 days to 15 years of age) and 59 adults (16 to 47 years of age)were included. The anterior chamber width, TML, Schwalbe’s line–angle opening distance, and Schwalbe’s line–trabecular iris surface area significantly increased, whereas CCT decreased with aging (all P < 0.001). The anterior chamber has a rapid phase of development during the first 18 months of age and reaches maturity by the age of 5 years. Girls have significantly smaller anterior chambers compared with boys (all P < 0.001). There was no difference between right and left eye development (all P > 0.05). The temporal TML development was significantly greater than the nasal TML (P < 0.05). CCT development was negatively correlated with refractive power. Conclusions: This novel, non-invasive study describes the postnatal development of anterior chamber in newborn children. Translational Relevance: Our established quantitative measurements have potential clinical use in understanding anterior segment diseases.