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Association of Cardiometabolic Multimorbidity and Depression With Cardiovascular Events in Early-Onset Adult Type 2 Diabetes: A Multiethnic Study in the U.S.

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journal contribution
posted on 15.01.2021, 08:44 by John Epoh Dibato, Olga Montvida, Francesco Zaccardi, Jack Alistair Sargeant, Melanie J Davies, Kamlesh Khunti, Sanjoy K Paul
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the temporal patterns of cardiometabolic multimorbidity (CM) and depression in White Caucasians (WCs) and African Americans (AAs) with early-onset type 2 diabetes and their impact on long-term atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD).

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS From U.S. electronic medical records, 101,104 AA and 505,336 WC subjects with type 2 diabetes diagnosed between 2000 and 2017 were identified (mean follow-up 5.3 years). Among those without ASCVD at diagnosis, risk of ASCVD and three-point major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE-3) (heart failure, myocardial infarction, or stroke) was evaluated between ethnicities by age-groups.

RESULTS The proportion of patients diagnosed at <50 years of age increased during 2012–2017 (AA 34–38%, WC 26–29%). Depression prevalence increased during 2000–2017 (AA 15–23%, WC 20–34%), with an increasing trend for CM at diagnosis in both groups. Compared with WC, the adjusted MACE-3 risk was significantly higher in AA across all age-groups, more pronounced in the 18–39-year age-group (hazard ratio 95% CI 1.42, 1.88), and in patients with and without depression. AAs had a 17% (1.05, 1.31) significantly higher adjusted ASCVD risk in the 18–39-year age-group only. Depression was independently associated with ASCVD and MACE-3 risk in both ethnic groups across all age-groups. Other comorbidities were independently associated with ASCVD and MACE-3 risk only among WCs.

CONCLUSIONS AAs have higher cardiovascular risk compared with WCs, particularly in early-onset type 2 diabetes. CM and depression at diabetes diagnosis have been increasing over the past two decades in both ethnic groups. Strategies for screening and optimal management of CM and depression, particularly in early-onset type 2 diabetes, may result in a lower cardiovascular risk.



Diabetes Care 2021 Jan; 44(1): 231-239.

Author affiliation

Diabetes Research Centre, College of Life Sciences


AM (Accepted Manuscript)

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Diabetes care






American Diabetes Association





Acceptance date


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Spatial coverage

United States