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Biomarkers in Heart Failure: Clinical Insights

journal contribution
posted on 13.07.2021, 14:37 by A Salzano, R D'Assante, MZ Israr, M Eltayeb, A D'Agostino, D Bernieh, M De Luca, S Rega, B Ranieri, C Mauro, E Bossone, IB Squire, T Suzuki, AM Marra
Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome caused by structural and/or functional cardiac abnormalities and resulting from impaired cardiac output or an in-crease of intracardiac pressures at rest and/or during stress. Typical signs and symptoms of HF include ankle swelling, fatigue, dyspnea and peripheral edema, pulmonary crackles, or increased jugular venous pressure. Usually, patients with ejection fraction (EF) greater than or equal to 50% are defined as HF with preserved EF, where as those with EF less than 40% have HF with reduced EF. Patients with EF between 40% and 49% are now classified as HF with midrange EF.

History

Citation

Heart Failure Clinics Volume 17, Issue 2, April 2021, Pages 223-243

Author affiliation

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences

Version

AM (Accepted Manuscript)

Published in

Heart Failure Clinics

Volume

17

Issue

2

Pagination

223 - 243

Publisher

Elsevier

issn

1551-7136

Copyright date

2021

Available date

10/02/2022

Spatial coverage

United States

Language

English