Cardiovascular Benefit of Empagliflozin Across the Spectrum of Cardiovascular Risk Factor Control in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME Trial
journal contributionposted on 18.03.2021, 12:45 by SE Inzucchi, K Khunti, DH Fitchett, C Wanner, M Mattheus, JT George, AP Ofstad, B Zinman
Control of multiple cardiovascular (CV) risk factors reduces CV events in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
To investigate this association in a contemporary clinical trial population, including how CV risk factor control affects the CV benefits of empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor.
Post hoc analysis.
Randomized CV outcome trial (EMPA-REG OUTCOME).
Type 2 diabetes patients with established CV disease.
Empagliflozin or placebo.
Main Outcome Measures
Risk of CV outcomes—including the treatment effect of empagliflozin—by achieving 7 goals for CV risk factor control at baseline: (1) glycated hemoglobin <7.5%, (2) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <100 mg/dL or statin use, (3) systolic blood pressure <140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure <90 mmHg, (4) pharmacological renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade, (5) normoalbuminuria, (6) aspirin use, (7) nonsmoking.
In the placebo group, the hazard ratio (HR) for CV death was 4.00 (95% CI, 2.26–7.11) and 2.48 (95% CI, 1.52–4.06) for patients achieving only 0–3 or 4–5 risk factor goals at baseline, respectively, compared with those achieving 6–7 goals. Participants achieving 0–3 or 4–5 goals also had increased risk for the composite outcome of hospitalization for heart failure or CV death (excluding fatal stroke) (HR 2.89 [1.82–4.57] and 1.90 [1.31–2.78], respectively) and 3-point major adverse CV events (HR 2.21 [1.53–3.19] and 1.42 [1.06–1.89]). Empagliflozin significantly reduced these outcomes across all risk factor control categories (P > 0.05 for treatment-by-subgroup interactions).
Cardiovascular risk in EMPA-REG OUTCOME was inversely associated with baseline CV risk factor control. Empagliflozin’s cardioprotective effect was consistent regardless of multiple baseline risk factor control.