Causal association between periodontitis and hypertension: Evidence from Mendelian randomization and a randomized controlled trial of non-surgical periodontal therapy
journal contributionposted on 19.05.2020, 14:55 by Marta Czesnikiewicz-Guzik, Grzegorz Osmenda, Mateusz Siedlinski, Richard Nosalski, Piotr Pelka, Daniel Nowakowski, Grzegorz Wilk, Tomasz P. Mikolajczyk, Agata Schramm-Luc, Aneta Furtak, Pawel Matusik, Joanna Koziol, Miroslaw Drozdz, Eva Munoz-Aguilera, Maciej Tomaszewski, Evangelos Evangelou, Mark Caulfield, Tomasz Grodzicki, Francesco D'Aiuto, Tomasz J. Guzik
Aims: Inflammation is an important driver of hypertension. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease, which could provide a mechanism for pro-hypertensive immune activation, but evidence of a causal relationship in humans is scarce. We aimed to investigate the nature of the association between periodontitis and hypertension. Methods and results: We performed a two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis in the ∼750 000 UK-Biobank/International Consortium of Blood Pressure-Genome-Wide Association Studies participants using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SIGLEC5, DEFA1A3, MTND1P5, and LOC107984137 loci GWAS-linked to periodontitis, to ascertain their effect on blood pressure (BP) estimates. This demonstrated a significant relationship between periodontitis-linked SNPs and BP phenotypes. We then performed a randomized intervention trial on the effects of treatment of periodontitis on BP. One hundred and one hypertensive patients with moderate/severe periodontitis were randomized to intensive periodontal treatment (IPT; sub- and supragingival scaling/chlorhexidine; n = 50) or control periodontal treatment (CPT; supragingival scaling; n = 51) with mean ambulatory 24-h (ABPM) systolic BP (SBP) as primary outcome. Intensive periodontal treatment improved periodontal status at 2 months, compared to CPT. This was accompanied by a substantial reduction in mean SBP in IPT compared to the CPT (mean difference of -11.1 mmHg; 95% CI 6.5-15.8; P < 0.001). Systolic BP reduction was correlated to periodontal status improvement. Diastolic BP and endothelial function (flow-mediated dilatation) were also improved by IPT. These cardiovascular changes were accompanied by reductions in circulating IFN-γand IL-6 as well as activated (CD38+) and immunosenescent (CD57+CD28null) CD8+T cells, previously implicated in hypertension. Conclusion: A causal relationship between periodontitis and BP was observed providing proof of concept for development of clinical trial in a large cohort of hypertensive patients. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02131922.