Clutter Suppression for Wideband Radar STAP
journal contributionposted on 05.08.2021, 14:02 by D Wu, D Zhu, M Sheng, N Li, Huiyu Zhou
Traditional space-time (ST) adaptive processing (STAP) theory is based on the assumption of narrowband or ``zero-bandwidth,'' where the decorrelation within the ST snapshot is ignored. However, with radar bandwidths increasing, this assumption becomes invalid due to the deteriorated decorrelation of the received signals within the ST snapshot. The decorrelation directly causes the dispersion of the received signals in both spatial and temporal domains, leading to the spreading of the clutter spectrum in the 2-D frequency (Doppler-spatial frequency) domain. With the spreading of the clutter spectrum, the clutter suppression notch in the traditional STAP filters is widened, resulting in a relative poor ability to detect slow-moving targets. In this article, we focus on the clutter suppression for wideband radar STAP. A generalized signal model of the ground clutter is first established for the wideband array radar. Using this outcome, we analyze the influence of bandwidth on the characteristics of the ground clutter and quantitatively describe the 2-D spreading of the ground clutter on the Doppler-spatial frequency plane. Moreover, the model of clutter covariance matrix for wideband STAP (W-STAP) is established. Finally, a 2-D keystone transform (KT) algorithm, referred to as ST KT (ST-KT), is proposed to eliminate the spreading of the ground clutter in the 2-D frequency domain caused by increasing bandwidths. Simulation results are employed to validate the theoretical analysis and verify the overperformance of the ST-KT based W-STAP method in terms of the output signal-to-clutter-plus-noise ratio (SCNR) of moving targets.