Do Web-Based Interventions Improve Well-Being in Type 2 Diabetes? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
journal contributionposted on 09.11.2016, 10:01 by Michelle Hadjiconstantinou, Jo Byrne, Danielle H. Bodicoat, Noelle Robertson, Helen Eborall, Kamlesh Khunti, Melanie J. Davies
BACKGROUND: Poor diabetes self-care can have a negative impact on psychological well-being and quality of life. Given the scarcity of traditional psychological support and the barriers to uptake of and attendance at face-to-face education programs, Web-based interventions are becoming a popular approach to provide an additional platform for psychological support in long-term conditions. However, there is limited evidence to assess the effect of Web-based psychological support in people with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review is the first review to critically appraise and quantify the evidence on the effect of Web-based interventions that aim to improve well-being in people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Searches were carried out in the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library. Reference lists were hand-searched. A meta-analysis was conducted for depression and distress outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 16 randomized controlled studies met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review and 9 were included in the meta-analyses. Theories were applied to the majority of the interventions. The most common behavior change techniques were "General information" and "Tracking/monitoring." Interventions with a duration of 2-6 months providing professional-led support with asynchronous and synchronous communication appeared to be associated with significant well-being outcomes. The pooled mean (95% confidence interval) difference between the intervention and control arms at follow-up on depression score was -0.31 (-0.73 to 0.11). The pooled mean difference on distress scores at follow-up was -0.11 (-0.38 to 0.16). No significant improvements in depression (P=.15) or distress (P=.43) were found following meta-analyses. CONCLUSIONS: While the meta-analyses demonstrated nonsignificant results for depression and distress scores, this review has shown that there is a potential for Web-based interventions to improve well-being outcomes in type 2 diabetes. Further research is required to confirm the findings of this review.