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Efficacy and tolerability of sodium‐glucose co‐transporter‐2 inhibitors and glucagon‐like peptide‐1 receptor agonists: A systematic review and network meta‐analysis

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journal contribution
posted on 23.03.2020, 17:28 by Humaira Hussein, Francesco Zaccardi, Kamlesh Khunti, Melanie J. Davies, Emily Patsko, Nafeesa N. Dhalwani, David E. Kloecker, Ekaterini Ioannidou, Laura J. Gray
Aim: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2is) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) in adults with type 2 diabetes.Materials and methods: Electronic databases were searched from inception to 24th April 2019 for randomised controlled trials reporting change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at approximately 24 and/or 52 weeks for SGLT-2is and/or GLP-1RAs (classified as short- and long-acting). Bayesian network meta-analyses were conducted to compare within and between SGLT-2i and GLP-1RA classes for cardiometabolic efficacy and adverse events (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42018091306). Results: 64 trials (53 trials of 24 weeks; 7 trials of 52 weeks; 4 trials of both 24 and 52 weeks), comprising of 31,384 participants were identified. Compared to placebo, all treatments improved HbA1c. Long-acting GLP-1RAs reduced HbA1c compared to short-acting GLP-1RAs and SGLT-2 is, with semaglutide showing greater reduction compared to placebo (24 weeks: -1.49% (95% credible interval [CrI]: -1.76, -1.22), 52 weeks: -1.38% (-2.05, -0.71)) and all other treatments. Long-acting GLP-1RAs showed benefits in body weight and waist circumference reduction, while SGLT-2 is reduced blood pressure. SGLT-2is showed increased odds of genital infection in comparison to long-acting GLP-1RAs (odds ratio (95% CrI): 5.26 (1.45, 25.00)), while GLP-1RAs showed increased odds of diarrhoea in comparison to SGLT-2is (short-acting GLP-1RAs: 1.65 (1.09, 2.49), long-acting GLP-1RAs: 2.23 (1.51, 3.28)). No other differences were found between SGLT-2is and GLP-1RAs in adverse events. Conclusion: Long-acting GLP-1RAs showed superiority in reducing HbA1c levels, body weight and waist circumference. SGLT-2 is showed reductions in blood pressure levels. This review provide essential evidence to guide treatment recommendations in the management of type 2 diabetes



Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 2020;1–12.

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Department of Health Sciences; Diabetes Research Centre


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Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism







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