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GRB 180418A: A possibly-short GRB with a wide-angle outflow in a faint host galaxy

journal contribution
posted on 01.02.2021, 15:57 by Alicia Rouco Escorial, Wen-fai Fong, Peter Veres, Tanmoy Laskar, Amy Lien, Kerry Paterson, Maura Lally, Peter K Blanchard, Anya E Nugent, Nial R Tanvir, Dylaan Cornish, Edo Berger, Eric Burns, Brad Cenko, Bethany E Cobb, Antonio Cucchiara, Adam Goldstein, Raffaella Margutti, Brian Metzger, Peter Milne, Andrew Levan, Matt Nicholl, Nathan Smith
We present X-ray and multi-band optical observations of the afterglow and host galaxy of GRB 180418A, discovered by Swift/BAT and Fermi/GBM. We present a reanalysis of the GBM and BAT data deriving durations of the prompt emission of T_90~2.56s and ~1.90s, respectively. Modeling the Fermi/GBM catalog of 1405 bursts (2008-2014) in the Hardness-T_90 plane, we obtain a probability of ~60% that GRB 180418A is a short-hard burst. From a combination of Swift/XRT and Chandra observations, the X-ray afterglow is detected to ~38.5 days after the burst, and exhibits a single power-law decline with F_X proportional to t^-0.98. Late-time Gemini observations reveal a faint r ~24.95 mag host galaxy at an angular offset of ~0.16''. At the likely redshift range of z ~1-1.5, we find that the X-ray afterglow luminosity of GRB 180418A is intermediate between short and long GRBs at all epochs during which there is contemporaneous data, and that GRB 180418A lies closer to the E_({\gamma},peak)-E_({\gamma},iso) correlation for short GRBs. Modeling the multi-wavelength afterglow with the standard synchrotron model, we derive the burst explosion properties and find a jet opening angle of {\theta}_j =>9-14 degrees. If GRB 180418A is a short GRB that originated from a neutron star merger, it has one of the brightest and longest-lived afterglows along with an extremely faint host galaxy. If instead the event is a long GRB that originated from a massive star collapse, it has among the lowest luminosity afterglows, and lies in a peculiar space in terms of the Hardness-T_90 and E_({\gamma},peak)-E_({\gamma},iso) planes.

History

Author affiliation

Department of Physics and Astronomy

Version

AM (Accepted Manuscript)

Published in

The Astrophysical Journal

Publisher

IOP Publishing for American Astronomical Society

issn

0004-637X

Publisher DOI

Notes

26 pages, 9 figures, 3 tables (Submitted to ApJ)

Language

en

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