Growth-inhibitory and cell cycle-arresting properties of the rice bran constituent tricin in human-derived breast cancer cells in vitro and in nude mice in vivo.
journal contributionposted on 24.10.2012, 09:00 by H. Cai, E. A. Hudson, P. Mann, R. D. Verschoyle, P. Greaves, M. M. Manson, W. P. Steward, A. J. Gescher
Tricin, a flavone found in rice bran, inhibits the growth of human-derived malignant MDA-MB-468 breast tumour cells at submicromolar concentrations. As part of the exploration of tricin as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent, we investigated the duration and cell cycle specificity of growth inhibition elicited by tricin in vitro and the effect of tricin on the development of MDA-MB-468 tumours grown in immune-compromised MF-1 mice in vivo. Preincubation of MDA-MB-468 cells with tricin (1-40 microM) for 72 h compromised cell growth after tricin removal, and such irreversibility was not observed in human breast-derived nonmalignant HBL-100 cells. Tricin (>/=5 microM) arrested MDA-MB-468 cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle without inducing apoptosis as adjudged by annexin V staining. In nude mice consumption of tricin with the diet (0.2%, w w(-1)) from 1 week prior to MDA-MB-468 cell implantation failed to impede tumour development. Steady-state levels of tricin in plasma, breast tumour tissue and intestinal mucosa, as measured by HPLC, were 0.13 microM and 0.11 and 63 nmol g(-1), respectively. Cells were exposed to tricin (0.11, 1.1 or 11 microM) in vitro for 72 h and then implanted into mice. The volume of tumours in animals bearing cells pre-exposed to 11 microM tricin was less than a third of that in mice with control cells, while tumours from cells incubated with 0.1 or 1.1 microM tricin were indistinguishable from controls. These results suggest that the potent breast tumour cell growth-inhibitory activity of tricin in vitro does not directly translate into activity in the nude mouse bearing the MDA MB-468 tumour. While the results do not support the notion that tricin is a promising candidate for breast cancer chemoprevention, its high levels in the gastrointestinal tract after dietary intake render exploration of its ability to prevent colorectal carcinogenesis propitious.