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High-resolution UV/Optical/IR Imaging of Jupiter in 2016-2019

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journal contribution
posted on 19.05.2020, 11:39 by Michael H Wong, Amy A Simon, Joshua W Tollefson, Imke de Pater, Megan N Barnett, Andrew Hsu, Andrew W Stephens, Glenn S Orton, Scott W Fleming, Charles Goullaud, William Januszewski, Anthony Roman, Gordon L Bjoraker, Sushil K Atreya, Alberto Adriani, Leigh N Fletcher
Imaging observations of Jupiter with high spatial resolution were acquired beginning in 2016, with a cadence of 53 days to coincide with atmospheric observations of the Juno spacecraft during each perijove pass. The Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) collected Jupiter images from 236 to 925 nm in 14 filters. The Near-Infrared Imager (NIRI) at Gemini North imaged Jovian thermal emission using a lucky-imaging approach (co-adding the sharpest frames taken from a sequence of short exposures), using the M' filter at 4.7 μm. We discuss the data acquisition and processing and an archive collection that contains the processed WFC3 and NIRI data (doi:10.17909/T94T1H). Zonal winds remain steady over time at most latitudes, but significant evolution of the wind profile near 24°N in 2016 and near 15°S in 2017 was linked with convective superstorm eruptions. Persistent mesoscale waves were seen throughout the 2016–2019 period. We link groups of lightning flashes observed by the Juno team with water clouds in a large convective plume near 15°S and in cyclones near 35°N–55°N. Thermal infrared maps at the 10.8 micron wavelength obtained at the Very Large Telescope show consistent high brightness temperature anomalies, despite a diversity of aerosol properties seen in the HST data. Both WFC3 and NIRI imaging reveal depleted aerosols consistent with downwelling around the periphery of the 15°S storm, which was also observed by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. NIRI imaging of the Great Red Spot shows that locally reduced cloud opacity is responsible for dark features within the vortex. The HST data maps multiple concentric polar hoods of high-latitude hazes.


Team members' contributions were supported by the Space Telescope Science Institute (for program numbers listed in Table 3), which is operated by AURA under NASA contract NAS 5-26555; by NASA under Cooperative Agreement 80NSSC19M0189, grant NNX16AP12H issued through the NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship program, grants NNX14AJ43G and 80NSSC18K1001 issued through the Planetary Astronomy program, grant NNX16AP12H issued through the Earth and Space Science Fellowship program, and grant NNX15AJ41G issued through the Solar System Observations program; by the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by AURA on behalf of the international Gemini partnership; by NASA through the Juno Project; by NASA to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology; by a Royal Society Research Fellowship; and by European Research Council Consolidator grant No. 723890 issued by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme. This work was enabled by the location of the Gemini North telescope within the Maunakea Science Reserve, adjacent to the summit of Maunakea. We are grateful for the privilege of observing Ka'āwela (Jupiter) from a place that is unique in both its astronomical quality and its cultural significance.



Michael H. Wong et al 2020 ApJS 247 58


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