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Investigating the properties of stripped-envelope supernovae; what are the implications for their progenitors?

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posted on 18.06.2019, 09:27 by SJ Prentice, C Ashall, PA James, L Short, PA Mazzali, D Bersier, PA Crowther, C Barbarino, TW Chen, CM Copperwheat, MJ Darnley, L Denneau, N Elias-Rosa, M Fraser, L Galbany, A Gal-Yam, J Harmanen, DA Howell, G Hosseinzadeh, C Inserra, E Kankare, E Karamehmetoglu, GP Lamb, M Limongi, K Maguire, C McCully, F Olivares, AS Piascik, G Pignata, DE Reichart, A Rest, T Reynolds, Rodríguez, JLO Saario, S Schulze, SJ Smartt, KW Smith, J Sollerman, B Stalder, M Sullivan, F Taddia, S Valenti, SD Vergani, SC Williams, DR Young
We present observations and analysis of 18 stripped-envelope supernovae observed during 2013–2018. This sample consists of five H/He-rich SNe, six H-poor/He-rich SNe, three narrow lined SNe Ic, and four broad lined SNe Ic. The peak luminosity and characteristic time-scales of the bolometric light curves are calculated, and the light curves modelled to derive 56Ni and ejecta masses (MNi and Mej). Additionally, the temperature evolution and spectral line velocity curves of each SN are examined. Analysis of the [O  I] line in the nebular phase of eight SNe suggests their progenitors had initial masses <20 M⊙. The bolometric light curve properties are examined in combination with those of other SE events from the literature. The resulting data set gives the Mej distribution for 80 SE–SNe, the largest such sample in the literature to date, and shows that SNe Ib have the lowest median Mej, followed by narrow-lined SNe Ic, H/He-rich SNe, broad-lined SNe Ic, and finally gamma-ray burst SNe. SNe Ic-6/7 show the largest spread of Mej ranging from ∼1.2–11 M⊙, considerably greater than any other subtype. For all SE–SNe = 2.8 ± 1.5 M⊙ which further strengthens the evidence that SE–SNe arise from low-mass progenitors which are typically <5 M⊙ at the time of explosion, again suggesting MZAMS <25 M⊙. The low and lack of clear bimodality in the distribution implies <30 M⊙ progenitors and that envelope stripping via binary interaction is the dominant evolutionary pathway of these SNe.

Funding

SJP acknowledges support from an STFC grant and is funded by H2020 ERC grant no. 758638. CA acknowledges the support provided by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-1613472. KM is supported by the UK STFC through an Ernest Rutherford Fellowship and by H2020 ERC grant no. 758638. The Liverpool Telescope is operated on the island of La Palma by Liverpool John Moores University in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias with financial support from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. Support for G.P., F.O.E and O.R is provided by the Ministry of Economy, Development, and Tourism’s Millennium Science Initiative through grant IC120009, awarded to The Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, MAS. F.O.E. acknowledges support from the FONDECYT grant nr. 11170953. DAH, and GH are funded by NSF grant AST-1313484. This work makes use of observations from the LCO network. N.E.R. acknowledges support from the Spanish MICINN grant ESP2017-82674-R and FEDER funds MF is supported by a Royal Society - Science Foundation Ireland University Research Fellowship MS acknowledges support from EU/FP7-ERC grant [615929] This work is based (in part) on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile as part of PESSTO, (the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey for Transient Objects Survey) ESO program 188.D-3003, 191.D-0935, 197.D-1075. Part of the funding for GROND (both hardware as well as personnel) was generously granted from the Leibniz-Prize to Prof. G. Hasinger (DFG grant HA 1850/28-1). A.G.-Y. is supported by the EU via ERC grant No. 725161, the Quantum Universe I-Core program, the ISF, the BSF Transformative pro

History

Citation

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 2019, 485 (2), pp. 1559-1578

Author affiliation

/Organisation/COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING/Department of Physics and Astronomy

Version

VoR (Version of Record)

Published in

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Publisher

Oxford University Press (OUP), Royal Astronomical Society

issn

0035-8711

eissn

1365-2966

Acceptance date

10/12/2018

Copyright date

2018

Available date

18/06/2019

Publisher version

https://academic.oup.com/mnras/article/485/2/1559/5257856

Notes

Supplementary data are available at MNRAS online. Figre S1: (Top left) The spectra of SN 2016P without host emission line removal. (Top right) Comparison with Ic-4 SNe 2002ap. The lines of SN 2002ap are much broader and at higher velocity. (Lower left) Comparison with SN 1994I, the major features align, although the velocities of SN 1994I are typically higher (except for Na i D). (Lower right) Comparison with Ic-7 SN 2007 gr. The velocities are broadly consistent but there are more features in the spectra SN 2007gr, albeit with a higher S/N Figure S2: The spectra of SN 2013F, epochs are relative to maximum light. Figure S3: Spectroscopic observations of SN 2013bb. Figure S4: Spectroscopic observations of SN 2013ek. Figure S5: Spectroscopic observations of SN 2015ah. Figure S6: Spectroscopic observations of SN 2015ap. Figure S7: Spectroscopic observations of SN 2016P. Figure S8: Spectroscopic observations of SN 2016frp. Figure S9: Spectroscopic observations of SN 2016iae. Figure S10: Spectroscopic observations of SN 2016jdw. Figure S11: Spectroscopic observations of SN 2017bgu. Figure S12: Spectroscopic observations of SN 2017dcc. Figure S13: Spectroscopic observations of SN 2017gpn. Figure S14: Spectroscopic observations of SN 2017ifh. Figure S15: Spectroscopic observations of SN 2017ixz. Figure S16: Spectroscopic observations of SN 2018ie. Figure S17: Spectroscopic observations of SN 2018cbz. Table S1: 4000–10000 Å bolometric light curve properties of SNe in the extended P16 sample. Table S2: Derived E(B − V)host for SNe in P16 and updated parameters Table S3: Table of δm100 values for the extended P16 sample. Table S4: Mej of the extended P16 sample SNe and comparison with Mej from spectral modelling and hydrodynamics codes.

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en

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