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Long-term atmospheric exposure to PCB153 and breast cancer risk in a case-control study nested in the French E3N cohort from 1990 to 2011

journal contribution
posted on 17.06.2021, 13:42 by F Deygas, A Amadou, T Coudon, L Grassot, F Couvidat, B Bessagnet, E Faure, P Salizzoni, J Gulliver, J Caudeville, G Severi, FR Mancini, K Leffondré, B Fervers, D Praud
Background
Although the genetic and hormonal risk factors of breast cancer are well identified, they cannot fully explain the occurrence of all cases. Epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that exposure to environmental pollutants, especially those with potential estrogenic properties, as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may have a role in breast cancer development. Being the most abundantly detected in human tissues and in the environment, congener 153 (PCB153) is widely used in epidemiological studies as indicator for total PCBs exposure.

Objectives
We aimed to estimate the association between cumulative atmospheric exposure to PCB153 and breast cancer risk.

Methods
We conducted a case-control study of 5222 cases and 5222 matched controls nested within the French E3N cohort from 1990 to 2011. Annual atmospheric PCB153 concentrations were simulated with the deterministic chemistry-transport model (CHIMERE) and were assigned to women using their geocoded residential history. Their cumulative PCB153 exposure was calculated for each woman from their cohort inclusion to their index date. Breast cancer odds ratios (ORs) associated with cumulative PCB153 exposure and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using multivariate conditional logistic regression models.

Results
Overall, our results showed a statistically significant linear increase in breast cancer risk related to cumulative atmospheric exposure to PCB153 as a continuous variable (adjusted OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.08–1.31, for an increment of one standard deviation among controls (55 pg/m3)). Among women who became postmenopausal during follow-up, the association remained statistically significant (adjusted OR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.09–1.39). In analyses by hormone receptors status, the positive association remained significant only for ER-positive breast cancer (adjusted OR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.05–1.33).

Discussion
This study is the first to have estimated the impact of atmospheric exposure to PCB153 on breast cancer risk. Our results showed a statistically significant increase in breast cancer risk, which may be limited to ER-positive breast cancer. These results warrant confirmation in further independent studies but raise the possibility that exposure to PCB153 increase breast cancer risk.

History

Citation

Environmental Research Volume 195, April 2021, 110743

Author affiliation

Centre for Environmental Health and Sustainability, School of Geography, Geology and the Environment

Version

AM (Accepted Manuscript)

Published in

Environmental Research

Volume

195

Pagination

110743

Publisher

Elsevier

issn

0013-9351

eissn

1096-0953

Acceptance date

08/01/2021

Copyright date

2021

Available date

12/01/2022

Spatial coverage

Netherlands

Language

English