1-s2.0-S0161642016305899-main.pdf (1.67 MB)
Download file

Optic Nerve Head Development in Healthy Infants and Children Using Handheld Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

Download (1.67 MB)
journal contribution
posted on 11.11.2016, 11:11 by Aarti Patel, Ravi Purohit, H. Lee, Viral Sheth, Gail Maconachie, E. Papageorgiou, Rebecca J. McLean, Irene Gottlob, Frank A. Proudlock
PURPOSE: To determine feasibility of optic nerve head (ONH) imaging and to characterize ONH development in full-term infants without sedation using handheld spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred fifty-two children aged between 1 day and 13 years. METHODS: All participants were imaged using handheld SD OCT without sedation during a single scan session. The percentage of successful scans was calculated. Interexaminer reproducibility and differences between right and left eyes were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Images were analyzed using ImageJ software. The developmental trajectories over time for ONH parameters were calculated using fractional polynomial modelling. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Disc and cup diameter (expressed as distance in micrometers and visual angle in degrees), cup depth, Bruch's membrane opening-minimum rim width (BMO-MRW), retinal thickness, and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL; 1700 μm and 6° from the disc center). RESULTS: On average, 70% of participants were imaged successfully. Interexaminer reliability was excellent (ICC, >0.89) for diametric and retinal thickness parameters. Right and left eyes were similar for diametric measurements (ICC, >0.79), but more variable for nasal BMO-MRW, RNFL, and retinal thickness. The mean disc and cup diameter increase by 30% and 40%, respectively, between birth and 13 years of age when expressed as a distance measure, but remained constant (at 5°-5.5° and 2°, respectively) when expressed as a visual angle with reference to the eye nodal point. The peripapillary temporal RNFL demonstrated a marked initial decrease of nearly 35% between birth and approximately 18 months of age. This was followed by a slow increase up to 12 years of age when measured at 1700 μm from the disc center, although there was little change when measured at 6° from the disc center. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated feasibility of handheld SD OCT imaging of the ONH in full-term infants and children without anaesthesia or sedation. This is the first in vivo handheld SD OCT study to describe the development of ONH parameters during the critical early years of visual maturation. Our results provide a normative database for use in routine practice and further studies of ONH pathologic features.


Supported by the Ulverscroft Foundation (Leicester, UK); the Medical Research Council (London, UK) (grant no.: MR/J004189/1 and MR/N004566/1); Nystagmus Network UK (London, UK); and the National Institutes of Health (London, UK) (grant no.: DRF-2014-07-136).



Ophthalmology, 2016, 123 (10), pp. 2147-2157

Author affiliation

/Organisation/COLLEGE OF MEDICINE, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND PSYCHOLOGY/MBSP Non-Medical Departments/Neuroscience, Psychology and Behaviour


Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Annual Meeting, May 2014, Orlando, Florida.


VoR (Version of Record)

Published in



Elsevier for American Academy of Ophthalmology



Acceptance date


Copyright date


Available date


Publisher version



Supplemental material is available at www.aaojournal.org.



Usage metrics