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Phylogenomics of Opsin Genes in Diptera Reveals Lineage-Specific Events and Contrasting Evolutionary Dynamics in Anopheles and Drosophila

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journal contribution
posted on 12.10.2021, 12:11 by Roberto Feuda, Matthew Goulty, Nicola Zadra, Tiziana Gasparetti, Ezio Rosato, Davide Pisani, Annapaola Rizzoli, Nicola Segata, Lino Ometto, Omar Rota Stabelli
Diptera is one of the biggest insect orders and displays a large diversity of visual adaptations. Similarly to other animals, the dipteran visual process is mediated by opsin genes. Although the diversity and function of these genes are well studied in key model species, a comprehensive comparative genomic study across the dipteran phylogeny is missing. Here we mined the genomes of 61 dipteran species, reconstructed the evolutionary affinities of 528 opsin genes, and determined the selective pressure acting in different species. We found that opsins underwent several lineage-specific events, including an independent expansion of Long Wave Sensitive opsins in flies and mosquitoes, and numerous family-specific duplications and losses. Both the Drosophila and the Anopheles complement are derived in comparison with the ancestral dipteran state. Molecular evolutionary studies suggest that gene turnover rate, overall mutation rate, and site-specific selective pressure are higher in Anopheles than in Drosophila. Overall, our findings indicate an extremely variable pattern of opsin evolution in dipterans, showcasing how two similarly aged radiations, Anopheles and Drosophila, are characterized by contrasting dynamics in the evolution of this gene family. These results provide a foundation for future studies on the dipteran visual system.

Funding

Royal Society University Research Fellowship (UF160226)

FIRST-Fondazione Edmund Mach scholarship

History

Citation

Genome Biology and Evolution, Volume 13, Issue 8, August 2021, evab170, https://doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evab170

Author affiliation

Department of Genetics and Genome Biology

Version

VoR (Version of Record)

Published in

GENOME BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION

Volume

13

Issue

8

Publisher

Oxford University Press (OUP)

eissn

1759-6653

Copyright date

2021

Available date

12/10/2021

Spatial coverage

England

Language

English