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Ross 19B: An Extremely Cold Companion Discovered via the Backyard Worlds: Planet 9 Citizen Science Project

journal contribution
posted on 13.01.2022, 14:39 by Adam C Schneider, Aaron M Meisner, Jonathan Gagne, Jacqueline K Faherty, Federico Marocco, Adam J Burgasser, J Davy Kirkpatrick, Marc J Kuchner, Leopold Gramaize, Austin Rothermich, Hunter Brooks, Frederick J Vrba, Daniella Bardalez Gagliuffi, Dan Caselden, Michael C Cushing, Christopher R Gelino, Michael R Line, Sarah L Casewell, John H Debes, Christian Aganze, Andrew Ayala, Roman Gerasimov, Eileen C Gonzales, Chih-Chun Hsu, Rocio Kiman, Mark Popinchalk, Christopher Theissen
Through the Backyard Worlds: Planet 9 citizen science project, we have identified a wide-separation (∼10', ∼9900 au projected) substellar companion to the nearby (∼17.5 pc), mid-M dwarf Ross 19. We have developed a new formalism for determining chance alignment probabilities based on the BANYAN Σ tool, and find a 100% probability that this is a physically associated pair. Through a detailed examination of Ross 19A, we find that the system is metal-poor ([Fe/H] = −0.40 ± 0.12) with an age of ${7.2}_{-3.6}^{+3.8}$ Gyr. Combining new and existing photometry and astrometry, we find that Ross 19B is one of the coldest known wide-separation companions, with a spectral type on the T/Y boundary, an effective temperature of ${500}_{-100}^{+115}$ K, and a mass in the range 15–40 MJup. This new, extremely cold benchmark companion is a compelling target for detailed characterization with future spectroscopic observations using facilities such as the Hubble Space Telescope or James Webb Space Telescope.

History

Citation

2021 ApJ 921 140

Author affiliation

Department of Physics and Astronomy

Version

AM (Accepted Manuscript)

Published in

Astrophysical Journal

Volume

921

Issue

2

Publisher

IOP Publishing Ltd

issn

0004-637X

eissn

1538-4357

Acceptance date

09/08/2021

Copyright date

2021

Available date

09/11/2022

Language

English