The ACOS CO[subscript 2] retrieval algorithm - Part II: Global X[subscript CO2] data characterization
journal contributionposted on 24.10.2012, 08:56 by D. Crisp, B.M. Fisher, C. O'Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L.R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N.M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C.E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D.M. O'Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T.E. Taylor, D.R. Thompson, P.O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, Y.L. Yung
Here, we report preliminary estimates of the column averaged carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) dry air mole fraction, X[subscript CO2], retrieved from spectra recorded over land by the Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite, GOSAT (nicknamed "Ibuki"), using retrieval methods originally developed for the NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission. After screening for clouds and other known error sources, these retrievals reproduce much of the expected structure in the global X[subscript CO2] field, including its variation with latitude and season. However, low yields of retrieved X[subscript CO2] over persistently cloudy areas and ice covered surfaces at high latitudes limit the coverage of some geographic regions, even on seasonal time scales. Comparisons of early GOSAT X[subscript CO2] retrievals with X[subscript CO2] estimates from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) revealed a global, −2% (7–8 parts per million, ppm, with respect to dry air) X[subscript CO2] bias and 2 to 3 times more variance in the GOSAT retrievals. About half of the global X[subscript CO2] bias is associated with a systematic, 1% overestimate in the retrieved air mass, first identified as a global +10 hPa bias in the retrieved surface pressure. This error has been attributed to errors in the O[subscript 2] A-band absorption cross sections. Much of the remaining bias and spurious variance in the GOSAT X[subscript CO2] retrievals has been traced to uncertainties in the instrument's calibration, oversimplified methods for generating O[subscript 2] and CO[subscript 2] absorption cross sections, and other subtle errors in the implementation of the retrieval algorithm. Many of these deficiencies have been addressed in the most recent version (Build 2.9) of the retrieval algorithm, which produces negligible bias in X[subscript CO2] on global scales as well as a ~30% reduction in variance. Comparisons with TCCON measurements indicate that regional scale biases remain, but these could be reduced by applying empirical corrections like those described by Wunch et al. (2011b). We recommend that such corrections be applied before these data are used in source sink inversion studies to minimize spurious fluxes associated with known biases. These and other lessons learned from the analysis of GOSAT data are expected to accelerate the delivery of high quality data products from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2), once that satellite is successfully launched and inserted into orbit.